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PNS/PAES 217 (2005) (English) : Agricultural 
Machinery — Hammer Mill — Methods of Test 




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PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT 



PHILIPPINE NATIONAL 
STANDARD 



PNS/PAES 217:2005 
(PAES published 2004) 
ICS 65.060 



Agricultural Machinery - Hammer Mill - Methods of Test 



© 



dti 



BUREAU OF PRODUCT STANDARDS 



PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/PAES 217:2005 

(PAES published 2004) 



National Foreword 

This Philippine Agricultural Engineering Standards PAES 217:2004, Agricultural 
Machinery - Hammer Mill - Methods of Test was approved for adoption as a Philippine 
National Standard by the Bureau of Product Standards upon the recommendation of the 
Agricultural Machinery Testing and Evaluation Center. 



PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING STANDARD PAES 217: 2004 
Agrkuitiira! Machinery - Hammer M ill - Methods of Test 



Foreword 

The pursuance of this national standard was initiated by the Agricultural Machinery Testing 
and Evaluation Center (AMTEC) with funding from the Department of Agricultiu*e. 

This standard has been technically prepared in accordance with BPS Directives Part 3:2003 - 
Rules for the Structure and Drafting of International Standards. 

The word "shall" is used to indicate mandatory requirements to conform to the standard. 

The word ''should" is used to indicate that among several possibilities one is recommended as 
particularly suitable without mentioning or excluding others. 

In the preparation of this standard, the following documents/publications were considered: 

Henderson, S.M. and R. L. Peixy. Agricultural Process Engineering. 3rd Ed. Westport, 
Connecticut, 1976. 

Procedures of Inspection and Test for Grinding Mills, AMTEC, UPLB. 



PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING STANDARD PAES 217:2004 


CONTENTS 


Page 


1 


Scope 


57 


2 


References 


57 


3 


Definitions 


57 


4 


General Conditions for Test and Inspection 


59 


4.1 


Selection of hammer mill to be tested 


59 


4.2 


Role of manufacturer/dealer 


59 


4.3 


Role of the representative of the manufacturer/dealer 


59 


4.4 


Test site conditions 


59 


4.5 


Test instruments 


59 


4.6 


Test materials 


59 


5 


Test and Inspection 


60 


5.1 


Verification of the manufacturer's technical data and information 


60 


5.2 


Field performance test 


60 


6 


Laboratory Analysis 


61 


6.1 


Purity determination 


62 


6.2 


Moisture content 


62 


6.3 


Determination of fineness modulus 


62 


7 


Formula 


62 


8 


Test Report 


62 


ANNEXES 




A 


Minimum List of Field and Laboratory Test Equipment and Materials 


64 


B 


Specifications of Hammer Mill 


65 


C 


Performance Test Data Sheet 


67 


D 


Laboratory Test Data Sheet 


69 


E 


Formula Used During Calculation and Testing 


71 



B-56 



PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING STANDARD PAES 217: 2004 



Agricultural Machinery ~ Hammer Mill - Methods of Test 



1 Scope 

This standard specifies the methods of test and inspection for hammer mill used for milling 
grains and other agricultural products. Specifically, it shall be used to: 

LI verify the mechanism, dimensions, materials, accessories of the hammer mill and the 
list of specifications submitted by the manufacturer; 

L2 determine the performance of the machine; 

L3 evaluate the ease of handling and safety features; 

L4 analyze the products of milling through laboratory analysis; and 

L5 report the results of the tests. 

2 References 

The following normative documents contain provisions which through reference in this text 
constitute provisions of these standards: 

PAES 103:2000 Agricultural Machinery - Method of Sampling 

PAES 216:2004 Agricultural Machinery - Hammer Mill - Specifications 

3 Definitions 

For the purpose of this standard, the definitions given in PAES 216:2004 and the following 
shall apply: 

3J 

fineness modulus 

classification system that indicates the uniformity of grind in the resultant product and is 

defined as the sum of the weight fractions retained above each sieve divided by 100 

3.2 

foreign matter 

impurity 

all matters other than input materials such as sand, gravel, dirt, pebbles, stones, metal fillings, 

lumps of earth, clay, mud, chaff, straw, weed seeds and other crop seeds 



3.3 

hammer mill . , , c , a ^ .„.,„ 

device used for milling which consists of rotating hammer(s) and a heavy perforated scietn 

at the bottom 

3,4 

input capacity .. i • j • 

weight of input materials per unit loading time into the hopper/intake pit, expressed in 

kilogram per hour 

3.5 

laboratory sieve shaker 

equipment v^ith definite shaking motion used to sort size of the milled materials using 

standard screen sieves 

3.6 

milling capacity . • i ^.. 

quantity of input materials that the hammer mill can process to produce milled materials per 

unit of time, expressed in kilogram per hour 

3.7 

output capacity 

weight of the milled materials collected, expressed in kilogram per hour 

3.8 

ovcrsll tici^^lit 

distance between the horizontal supporting surface and the horizontal plane touching the 

uppermost part of the hammer mill 

NOTE Ail parts of the hammer mill projecting upwards are contained between these two planes. 

3.9 

overall length r , , 

distance between the vertical planes at the right angles to the median plane of the hammer 

mill and touching its front and rear extremities 

NOTE All parts of the hammer mill, in particular, components projecting at the front and at the rear are 
contained between these two planes. Where an adjustment of components is possible, it shall be set at minmuim 
length. 

3.10 

overall width 

distance between the vertical planes parallel to the median plane of the hammer mill, each 

plane touching the outermost point of the hammer mill on its respective side 

NOTE All parts of the hammer mill projecting laterally are contained between these two planes. 

3.11 
primemover 

electric motor, or internal combustion engine used to run the hammer mill 



B-58 



PAES 217:2004 



3,12 

purity 

amount of input materials free of foreign matter expressed as percentage of the total weight 

of the sample 

3J3 

rimiiiiig-iii period 

preliminaiy operation of the machine to make various adjustments prior to the conduct of test 

until the operation is stable 



4 General Coeditioiis for Test and Inspection 

4 J Selection of hammer mill to be tested 

Hammer mill submitted for test shall be sampled in accordance with PAES 103. 

4.2 Role of maeiifacturer/dealer 

The manufiicturer shall submit specifications and other relevant information about the 
hammer mill and shall abide with the terms and conditions set forth by an official testing 
agency. 

43 Role of the representative of the maiiiifactiirer/dealer 

An officially designated representative of the manufacturer shall operate, adjust, repair, and 
shall decide on matters related to the operation of the machine. 

4.4 Test site conditions 

The hammer mill shall be tested as installed for normal operation. The site should have ample 
provisions for material handling, temporary storage and workspace. 

4.5 Test instriiments 

The instruments to be used shall have been calibrated and checked by the testing agency prior 
to the measurements. The suggested list of minimum field and laboratory test equipment and 
materials needed to carry out the hammer mill test is shown in Annex A. 

4.6 Test material 

Test materials to be used shall be com with the following characteristics: 

4.6 A Test material characteristics 

4.6 A A Variety : locally grown (as much as possible single variety) 

4.6. L2 Moisture Content : maximum moisture content of 14 % 



4e6.L3 Purity : 98 %, minimum 

4,6.2 Quantity to be supplied 

The amount of test material to be supplied shall be at least 75 % of input capacity of the 
hammer mill. 

5 Test and Inspection 

5.1 Verification of the manufacturer's technical data and information 

5, LI This inspection is carried out to verify the mechanism, dimensions, materials and 
accessories of the hammer mill in comparison with the list of manufacturer's technical data 
and information. 

5.L2 A plain and level surface shall be used as reference plane for verification of 
dimensional hammer mill specifications. 

5el3 The items to be inspected and verified shall be recorded in Annex B. 

5.2 Field performance test 

5,2.1 This is carried out to obtain actual data on overall machine performance. 

5.2»2 Initial data of the crop conditions such as moisture content and purity shall be 
recorded. 

5.23 Test materials to be used 

Test materials prepared to be used for the running-in and for each test trial shall be the same. 

5,2o4 Running-in and preliminary adjustment 

Before the start of the test, the hammer mill should have undergone running-in period 
wherein various adjustments of the hammer mill shall be made according to the 
recommendation of the manufacturer. (No other adjustments shall be permitted while the test 
is on-going). 

502.5 Termination of test 

If during the test run, the machine stops due to major component breakdown or malfunctions, 
the test shall be terminated by the test engineer. 

5.2.6 Operation of the hammer mill 

The hammer mill shall be operated at the recommended settings of the manufacturer and the 
setting shall be maintained during the test trial. After the test am, the milling area shall be 
cleaned and then prepared for the next test trial. This procedure shall be repeated for the 
succeeding test trials. 



B-60 



PAES 217:2004 

5.2.7 Test trial 

A minimum of three test trials, with duration of at least 15 minutes per trial, shall be adopted. 

5.2.8 Data collection 

5.2.8.1 Duration of test 

The duration of each test trial shall start with the feeding of all test materials into the intake 
hopper and ends after the last discharge from the output chute and shall be recorded as 
operating time. 

5.2.8.2 Noise level 

The noise emitted by the machine shall be measured using a noise level meter at the location 
of the operators and baggers. The noise level shall be measured approximately 50 mm away 
from the ear level of the operators and baggers. 

5.2.8.3 Speed of components 

The speed of the rotating shafts of the major components of the hammer mill shall be taken 
using a tachometer. 

NOTE Measurements shall be taken with and without load for sub-clauses 5.2.8.2 and 5.2.8.3 as 
specified in Annex C. 

5.2.8.4 Fuel/Power consumption 

Before the start of each test trial, the fuel tank shall be filled to its capacity. After each test 
trial the tank shall be refilled using graduated cylinder. The amount of refueling is the fuel 
consumption for the test. When filling up the tank, keep the tank horizontal so as not to leave 
empty space in the tank. In case an electric motor is used as the primemover, a power meter 
shall be used to measure electric energy consumption. 

5.2.9 Sampling and sample handling 

5*2.9.1 Sampling for test materials 

The conditions of the test materials such as moisture content and purity shall be taken using 
three ''representative samples" each weighing 1 kg which represent the different conditions of 
test materials in the bulk. This is done by randomly taking samples from the bulk. Half 
(500g) of the 1 kg sample shall be used for laboratory analysis and the other half (500 g) shall 
be used for reference purposes or for an eventual second check in case of review. 

5.2,9.2 Sampling from output chute 

During each test trial, three samples each weighing 200 g shall be randomly collected from 
the output of the hammer mill to be analyzed in the laboratory for the determination of 
fineness modulus. Half (100 g) of the 200 g sample shall be used for laboratory analysis and 



the other half (100 g) shall be used for reference purposes or for an eventual second check in 
case of review. 

5.2,93 Handling of Samples 

All samples to be taken to the laboratory shall be placed in appropriate containers and 
properly labeled: If the sample is to be used for determining moisture content, it must be kept 
in dry and airtight containers. 

5,2,9.4 Data recording and observations 

Record sheet for all data and infomiation during the test is given in Annex C. 

6 Laboratory Analysis 

Laboratory analysis shall be made to determine the purity, moisture content and fineness 
modulus. The laboratory test data sheet to be used is given in Annex D. 

6 J Purity determinatioH 

Take three 500 g samples from the "representative samples" of the input. Clean the samples 
to remove the mipurities, the clean samples shall be weighed and recorded. 

6,2 Moisture content 

This shall be taken using a calibrated moisture meter or by oven method. 

6.2 J If a calibrated moisture meter is applicable, five samples shall be taken for moisture 
content detemiination. 

6,2.2 If oven method is used, the following procedure shall be used: 

6,2JJ For each test trial, select three representative sample weighing at least 100 g of milled 
materials and place in the moisture can. The moisture can shall be sealed to ensure that no 
moisture is lost or gained by the sample between the time it was collected and when it is 
weighed. Record the initial weight, 

6o2.2.2 Dry the sample in the oven with temperature of 103 ""C ± 1 "^C for 72 h. 

6,2.23 After removing the samples from the oven, the moisture can with the sample should 
be placed in a desiccator and allowed to cool to the ambient temperature. 

6.2.2.4 Weigh the moisture can plus the dried sample. Record the final weight. Calculate the 
moisture content using Equation E.l in Annex E. 

6.3 Determination of fineness modulus 

Three 100 g milled samples from the output chute shall be shaken using a laboratory sieve 
shaker with standard screen sieves for a period of 10 min. After shaking, the stack of sieves 



B-62 



PAES 217:2004 



shall be dismounted and the weight of the material in each sieve shall be taken. Calculation of 
fineness modulus is outlined m Annex D. 



Formula 



The fomiulas to be used during calculations and testing are given in Annex E. 



8 Test Report 

The test report shall include the following information in the order given: 

8.1 Name of testing agency 

8.2 Test report number 
83 Title 



4 Summary 

5 Purpose and scope of test 

6 Methods of test 

7 Table 1 - Hammer mill specifications 

8 Results and discussion 

9 Table 2 -Performance test data 

10 Observations (include pictures) 



8,11 Names, signatures and designation of test engineers 



A.l 



Annex A 
(informative) 

Minimum List of Field and Laboratory 
Test Equipment and Materials 



Equipment Quantity 

AAA Field 

A J.Ll Grain moisture meter (Capacitance or conductance type) 

Range: 6 % to 40 % 1 

A,LL2 Tachometer (contact type or photo electric type) 1 

Range: rpm to 5,000 rpm 
A.LL3 Digital timers (range: 60 minutes) 2 

Accuracy: 0.1 sec 
A.LL4 Tape measure (with maximum length of 5m) 1 

A,LL5 Noise level meter 1 

Range:30dB(A)tol30dB(A) 
A.LL6 Weighing scale (capacity: 100 kg) 1 

Scale divisions: 500 g 
AJ,L7 Graduated cylinder (for engines) 1 

(500 mL capacity) 

or Watt-hour meter (for electric motors) 

60 Hz, 220 V 
AJJ.8 Camera 1 

Laboratory 

Weighing scale (Sensitivity: 0.1 g) 1 

Grain sampler/divider 1 

Laboratory sieve shaker 1 

Set of standard screen sieves 1 

Air oven 1 

Desiccators 1 

Aluminum moisture can 9 

Materials 

Sample bags 100 

Labeling tags which include 100 

Date of test 

Hammer mill on test 

Sample source 

Variety 

Trial number 



A.1.2 


A.1.2.1 


A.1.2.2 


A.L3 


A.1.4 


A.1.4 


A.1.5 


A.1.6 


A.2 


A.2.1 


A.2.2 


A.2.2J 


A.2.2.2 


A.2.2.3 


A.2.2.4 


A.2.2.5 



B-64 



PAES 217:2004 



Annex B 
(infonnative) 

Specifications of Hammer Mill 



Name of Applicant/ Distributor: 
Address: 

Tel No: 



Name of Manufacturer: 
Address: 

Tel No: 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

Make: 

Serial No: 



Type: 

Brand/Model: 



Production date of hammer mill to be tested: 

Testing Agency: _____„ 

Date of Test: 



Test Engineer: _ 
Location of Test: 



Items to be inspected 






ITEMS 


Manufacturer's 
Specification 


Verification by the 
Testing agency 


B. 


1 Main structure 


B. 


1.1 Overall dimensions, mm 




B. 


1,1.1 length 






B. 


1.1.2 width 






B. 


1.1.3 height 






B. 


1.2 Weight, without engine (kg), if 
Applicable 






B. 


2 Intake hopper/Loading pit 


B. 


2.1 Holding capacity, kg 






B. 


2.2 Materials of construction 






B. 


2,3 Features 






B. 


3 Milling assembly 


B. 


3.1 Type 






B, 


3.2 Dimension, W x D, mm 






B. 


3.3 Hammer 




B 


3.3.1 Type 






B 


3.3.2 Dimension, L x W x T, mm 






B 


,3.3.3 No. per anchor bar 






B 


.3.3.4 Means of attachment 






B 


.3.3.5 Material 






B 


.4 Screen 




B 


.4.1 Dimension, L x W, mm 






B 


.4.2 No. of screens 






B 


.4.3 Mesh Number 






B 


.4.4 Wire size, mm 






B 


.4.5 Materials of construction 






B 


,5 Clearance between the screen and 







ITEMS 



the tip of the hammer , mm 
B.6 Aspirator 



Manufacturer's 
Specification 



Verification by the 
Testing agency 



B06J Diameter, mm 



B,6.2 No. of vanes 



BJ 



Primemover 



B,7 J Electric motor 



BJ.Ll Brand 



BJS2 Type 



Bo7,L3 Make or manufacturer 



B.7,L4 Serial number 



BJ.1.5 Rated power, kW 



B.7oL6 Rated speed, rpm 



BJAJ Phase 



B,7,L8 Voltage, V 



B.7,L9 Current, A 



B J.IJO Frequency, Hz 
BJ.2 Engine 



B.7.2.1 Brand 



Bo7.2,2 Model 



B,7.23 Type 



B,7.2.4 Make or Manufacturer 



Bo7,2.5 Serial number 



B.7.2.6 Rated power, kW 



B.7,2.7 Rated speed, rpm 



B.7>2.8 Displacement, cm 



B.7.2>9 Cooling system 



B.7.2.10 Starting system 



B,8 



Safety devices 



Bo9 Special features 



B-66 



PAES 217:2004 



Aeiiex C 
(informative) 

Performance Test Data Sheet 



Test Trial No. 
Test Engineer: 
Assistants: 



Test Requested by: 



Date: 

Location: 

Test Specimen: 
Manufacturer: 



ITEMS 


Trial 1 


Trial 2 


Trial 3 


AVE. 


C.l Conditions of Test Sample 




C.1.1 Variety 




C.l. 2 Source 




C.l. 3 Moisture content, % 




C.2 Weight of input, kg 










C.3 Input capacity, t/h 










C.4 Operating time, h 










C.5 Milling capacity, t/h 










C.6 Speed of components, rpm 




C.6.1 Primemover 




C.6.1.1 Without load 










C.6.1.2 With load 










C.6.2 Mill shaft 




C.6.2.1 Without load 










C.6.2.2 With load 










C.7 Noise level, db{A) 




C.7.1 Operator 




C.7.1.1 Without load 










C.7.1.2 With load 










C.8 Power consumption 




C.8.1 Power, kW 




C.8.1.1 Without load 










C.8.1.2 With load 










C.8.2 Current, A 




C.8.2.1 Without load 










C.8.2.2 With load 










C.8.3 Voltage, V 




C.8.3.1 Without load 










C.8.3.2 With load 










C.9 Fuel consumed, L 










C.IO Fuel consumption, L/h 










C.ll Minimum labor requirements 











C .12 Rate the following observations: 



Items 



Rating"^ 



C12J Ease of loading 



C.12,2 Ease of cleaning parts 



CJ23 Ease of adjusting and repair of parts 



CJ2.4 Ease of collecting output 



C.12.5 Ease of transporting the machine 
C.12,6 Safety 



CJ2J Vibration 



1 - Ver>' Good 

2 - Good 

3 - Satisfactory 

4 - Poor 

5 - Very Poor 



C J3 Other Observations: 



B-68 



PAES 217:2004 



Aimex D 
(informative) 



Laboratory Test Data Sheet 



Machine Tested: 
Analyzed by: 



BA Moisture Content Determination 



























Average 





D,2 Purity determination (500 g sample) 





Trial 1 


Trial 2 


Trial 3 


Average 


Final weight, g 










Purity, % 











D.3 Milled Product Analysis 



us standard 

Sieve No. 


Percent of 
materials retained 


Multiplier 

(depends 

on the 

Sieve No.) 


Weight fractions retained above each 
sieve 


Trial 
1 


Trial 

2 


Trial 

3 


(7-0) 


Trial 1 


Trial 2 


Trial 3 


Average 


12 


















16 


















20 


















30 


















40 


















50 


















100 


















Pan 


















SUM 










FM 










Average particle size diameter (mm) 










Classification 











D.4 Fineness Modulus for Classifying Ground Feeds 



Material 



Ear com 



Shelled com 



Barley 



Oats 



Soybeans 



Wheat 



Com fodder 



Hay 



Whole 
Grain 



6.00 



5.00 



4.50 



6.00 



5.00 



Coarse 



4.80 



4.80 



4.10 



3.70 



4.80 



4.10 



5.50 



4.00 



Grind 



Medium 



3.60 



3.60 



3.20 



2.90 



3.60 



Fine 



2.40 



2.40 



2.30 



2.10 



3.20 



4.20 



3.10 



2.40 



2.30 



2.90 



2.20 



Source: Henderson, S.M. and R. L. Perry. Agricultural Process Engineering. 3 
1976. 



w 



Very Fine 



1 



,80 



1 



80 



50 



,40 



80 



50 



1.40 



Ed. Westport, Connecticut, 



B-70 



PAES 217:2004 



Annex E 
(infonnative) 

Formula Used During Calculations and Testing 



E.l Moisture content 
MC 



''wctbasis 



= ' ' X 100 



where: 

MC - 

Wf 

E»2 Milling capacity 



Moisture content, % 
Initial mass of the sample, g 
Final mass of the sample, g 



T. 



where: 



Cm 
To 



Milling capacity, kg/h 
Weight of milled product, kg 
Total operating time, h 



E.3 Product recovery, Rm (%) 

W, 
R„ = 



W^ 



where: 



Rm 

Wp 
Wi 



E.4 Fineness Modulus 

IN 



FM- 



100 



Product recovery, % 
Weight of product, kg 
Weight of input, kg 



where: 



FM 

N 



Fineness Modulus 

Weight fractions retained above each sieve 



N 



Percent material 
retained on each 

sieve 



X 



Multiplier, 7 - 
(depends on 
the mesh No.) 



A jrt^sjjvj ^K I aj^xrw 



ES Particle Size Diameter of ground product 
D = 
where: 



0.004 1(2''-^) 




D 


Particle size diameter 


FM = 


Fineness Modulus 



E,6 Fuel/Power coosumptioo, 
E.6J Power coiisumptioE5 Ec (kW-h) 

where 



Ec 

Pc 

To 

E.6.2 Fuel consumption 

F 
T 



where: 



Fc 
Fi 
To 



Power consumption, kW-h 
Power consumed, kW 
Time of operation, h 



Fuel consumption, L/h 
Amount of fuel consumed, L 
Time of operation, h 



B~72